Corrections & Additions
for Epler's "Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of North and South Carolina"
(last updated 26-iii-2019)
newest additions at the top

pp. 8.65-8.67.  
Two species have been removed from Einfeldia and placed in the genus Benthalia.  We now have B. brunneipennis (Johannsen) and B. natchitocheae (Sublette).
pp. 8.60, 8.64.  
Dicrotendipes sp. A has been described as Dicrotendipes hulberti.  See: Epler, J.H. 2016.  A new species of Dicrotendipes (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Florida.  Zootaxa 4208: 77-83
pp. 8.12, 8.125.  Although I posted information way back in 2006 concerning the occurrence in Florida of Polypedilum nubifer, I failed to post any notes about how it would key in my 2001 manual.  This species, the sole member of the subgenus P. (Tripedilum), is relatively new to the US.  It has a typical Polypedilum mentum but has antennae with Lauterborn organs at the apices of segments 2 and 3.  It will not key past couplet 27 (p. 8.12) in the generic key for Chironominae because of its oddball antennae.   If couplet 27’ is changed to: “ Antennae with 4-7 segments; if with 6 segments, then without alternate Lauterborn organs apically on segments 2 and 3; if with 5 segments, Lauterborn organs usually present at apex of segment 2, but may be present at apex of segment 2 and segment 3”,   the species will key to Polypedilum

Note I had posted information on this matter previously (5-iv-2008), but I recently found I mixed up some species and posted incorrect information.  I have removed the previous post.


NEW CHANGES resulting from the publication of the new Holarctic Keys to larvae, and how they relate to Florida's midges, can be found here.

p. 8.123-124.  Although I stated that the larvae of Phaenopsectra flavipes and Ph. punctipes were "inseparable", the two species can be separated as larvae. The larva of Ph. punctipes (Wiedemann)(not illustrated in my 2001 manual, figures on p. 8.123 are of Ph. flavipes) has a very deep, rounded notch (diastema) on the mandible, the mentum is steeply descending laterally, the 3 plates of the pecten epipharyngis are densely adorned with numerous small teeth (appears spiny like a hedgehog) and  there usually is a strong, well defined line between the frons ("frontal apotome") and weak sclerite (clypeus) anterior to it.  In Florida Ph. punctipes is known from the northern tier of counties.  In Ph. flavipes the diastema is not deep and rounded, the mentum does not steeply descend laterally, the 3 plates of the pecten epipharyngis bear large teeth and the line between the frons and the clypeal sclerite anterior to it is weakly delimited or almost non-existent (see figures on p. 8.123).  This information was added over a year ago to the "New Taxa Added" page for the Florida checklist, but I somehow managed to not include it here.

p. 7.47, 7.49.    In a recent paper (Fu, Y & O.A Sæther. 2012.  Corynoneura Winnertz and Thienemanniella Kieffer from the Nearctic Region (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae). Zootaxa 3536: 1-61), Corynoneura floridaensis Fu & Sæther was described.  This replaces my C. sp. B.

p. 8.146.  "Stempellina sp. C" is Neostempellina reissiThis was changed some time ago on the Florida checklist but I negelected to mention it here!!

p. 8.98.  Tanytarsus sp. W is Paratanytarsus longistilus; this taxon was originally based on a specimen with a split premandible, making it appear 3-toothed.  Thus, there is NO Tanytarsus sp. W!

p. 8.98.    Paratanytarsus longistilus Bolton, Ekrem, Sublette & Sublette added.  Orignally diagnosed as Micropsectra sp. D in my 2001 manual.

    Also note that Stelechomyia perpulchra is now known as Kribiodorum perpulchrum.

p. 7.163. Phytotelmatocladius delarosai described, replaces Orthocladiinae genus H. See: Epler, J.H. 2010. Phytotelmatocladius,  a new genus from bromeliads in Florida and Brazil (Diptera: Chironomidae: Orthocladiinae). Pp. 285-293 in Ferrington, L.C., Jr. (ed.) Proceedings of the XV International Symposium on Chironomidae.  Chironomidae Research Group, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 385 + vii pp.

p. 8.128.  Asheum has been re-established as a genus, with the sole SE US species A. beckae (Sublette).  This was done in a brief statement on page 6 of  Oyewo, E.A. and O.A Sæther. 2008. Revision of Polypedilum (Pentapedilum) Kieffer and Ainuyusurika Sasa et Shirasaki (Diptera: Chironomidae). Zootaxa 1953: 1-145.

p. 8.108. Martin Spies has recently "split" Parachironomus supparilis into three species; the species we have here is P. longistilus.  See: Spies, M. 2008. Parachironomus valdiviensis, spec. nov., and other changes to nomenclature of Neotropical Chironomidae (Insecta, Diptera). Spixiana 31: 173-175.

p. 7.80.  At a recent (February 2008) larval workshop I was teaching, biologist Jessica Bevins (Kentucky Division of Water) brought some specimens of my Hydrobaenus sp. O.  I’ll be damned if that thing doesn't have a vestigial beard, similar to Zalutschia! The beard is quite minuscule, only 4-5 minute setae – and appears to be visible only with "Nomarski" (DIC) optics.  I did not see this beard when I did the 2001 manual; I had only a phase contrast scope at that time (rechecking with the phase contrast failed to resolve this almost invisible beard on most of the specimens in my collection).  Thus, if you have a microscope with Nomarski optics, my Hydrobaenus sp. O may key to Zalutschia!

p. 8.158.  Pete Cranston recently described Tanytarsus bromelicola, a species found in bromeliad phytotelmata (=water held by plants) [reference: Cranston, P.S. 2007. A new species for a bromeliad phytotelm-dwelling Tanytarsus (Diptera: Chironomidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 100: 617-622].  Although I collected this taxon in 1980, from Tillandsia phytotelmata at Donald MacDonald Park in Indian River Co., I never put it in my identification manuals.  Tanytarsus bromelicola will key to couplet 17', T. sp. J, in the 2001 key.  It can be easily separated by the pale median tooth of the mentum; that of T. sp. J is dark.

p. 8.2.  The second argument of couplet 2' should read "antennal blade extends past apex of segment 3" [not "segment 2"].  The figure is correct, but my typing wasn't ...  thanks to Doug Strom for pointing this one out.

Also, a new publication has been published that updates the names of two Florida midges.  My Stempellinella sp. A has now been described as Stempellinella fimbriata Ekrem.  My tentative identification of another Fl species, S. cf. leptocelloides, has been verified as the real thing, so the "cf." may be deleted from the name.  The paper:  Ekrem, T. 2007. A taxonomic revision of the genus Stempellinella (Diptera: Chironomidae). Journal of Natural History 41: 1367-1465.

p. 4.56.  An additional species of Monopelopia  has been found in the Everglades by Rick Jacobsen.  This is M. caraguata, described in: Mendes, H.F., C.B. Marcondes & L.C. de Pinho. 2003. A new phytotelmatic species of Monopelopia Fittkau, 1962 (Insecta: Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from South Brazil. Zootaxa 262: 1-10.

Below is a key that will separate all known North American Monopelopia larvae:

Key to Cantopelopia and Monopelopia larvae of North America

1      At least one dark claw on posterior parapod  …………………………….............................................………….……  2

1’    All claws of posterior parapod colorless or pale yellow  ………………..........................................………………....  3

2(1)    Teeth of ligula in relatively straight line; procercus length/width 3.0 or less; common …..  M. boliekae  [SE US]

2’    Teeth of ligula in concave arc; procercus length/width > 4.0; rare ………......................……  M. tenuicalcar [E US]

3(1’)    Small claws of posterior parapod with at most a few small teeth on inner surface  .........…..  M. tillandsia  [FL]

3’    2-3 small claws on posterior parapod with many large inner teeth  ..................................................................  4

4 (3’)    3 small claws on posterior parapod with many large inner teeth  ......................…  Cantopelopia gesta [SE US]

4’    2 small claws on posterior parapods with 5 or more large inner teeth  ..............................................................  5

5(4’)    AR 2.22-2.53  …....................................................................................................  M. mikeschwartzi [Jamaica]

5’    AR 3.08-3.18  …..........................................................................................................…  M. caraguata  [FL, Brazil]


p. 8.154   The diagnosis for Tanytarsus larvae (in my 2001 manual as well as the Holarctic Keys) states that the claws of the posterior parapods are “simple”.  This character state is one used to separate Tanytarsus larvae from those of Cladotanytarsus and Virgatanytarsus.  However,  three of my putative FL species – Tanytarsus spp. L, S and Y (see below) – possess 1-2 claws on each posterior parapod that have 1-2 accessory spines (or serrations) on their dorsal (or outer) margins.  Thus, the teeth or serrations on these claws are “external” to the main apex of the claw, rather than internal as those of Cladotanytarsus or Virgatanytarsus.

     Tt Y S 3
“Tanytarsus sp. Y” you ask?  I must apologize for taking so long to get news of this additional FL species posted on this site.  However, if you had attended any of my midge workshops in the last three years, you would have learned of it!  This taxon is similar to T. spp. L and S (and spp. A and V) in having most of the second antennomere unsclerotized, and will key to couplet 6 in the Tanytarsus key.  It differs from these other taxa in the clypeal (S 3) setae being  deeply divided into several “strands”, unlike the simple S3 of T. sp. L or the flattened, branched S3 of T. sp. S.  Tanytarsus sp. Y is rather common. 


p. 7.99  The taxon keyed as "Orthocladius sp. "Jacobsen" has been described as Orthocladius (Mesorthocladius) nimidens Sæther.  See:
Sæther, O.A. 2005. A new subgenus and new species of Orthocladius van der Wulp, with a phylogenetic evaluation of the validity of the subgenera of the genus (Diptera: Chironomidae). Zootaxa 974: 1-56.

p. 8.129   The larva identified as Polypedilum bergi (couplet 10) is NOT that species; refer to this larva as P. sp. FL.

p. 7.68  The caption for the antenna at the right edge of the page should read "E. tirolensis antenna", not "E. brevicalcar group sp. B antenna" (sp. B is what I called the critter until I obtained reared material and I missed changing the caption - so shoot me!)

An important new paper has been published!!

Ekrem, T., M.F. Sublette & J.E. Sublette. 2003. North American Tanytarsus I. Descriptions and keys to species in the eminulus, gregarius, lugens and mendax species groups (Diptera: Chironomidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 96: 265-328.

This excellent paper describes 17 new species, many of which are found in the SE US.  For many species, all life stages are described; keys are included for all known life stages.  These new species have been incorporated into the check lists for Florida and North & South Carolina that are found on this web site.

Note that at this time it is not possible to transfer these new names to my species letter names, although it looks like my T. sp. G is composed of at least T. mendax Kieffer and T. pelsuei Spies.  It also looks like my T. sp. T will be composed of several species (I told you so!!).



I have found an additional larval species of Corynoneura from the Savannah River Site in South Carolina.  This larva, Corynoneura sp I (that's the letter "I", not a roman numeral)  will key to couplet 5 in my key, but will stop there.  It has a smooth head capsule and three median teeth on the mentum, but has a subbasal seta on the posterior parapod similar to that of my C. sp. B.

p. 8.162    Under Tanytarsus sp. D, delete the line "and the single dorsal accessory tooth on the mandible of T. sp. D."  Tanytarsus sp. D has more than one dorsal accessory tooth on the mandible; this is an old mistake that was not corrected when I updated the manual!

p. 1.3      Einfeldia austini Beck & Beck [not "(Beck & Beck)"]; note the correct name for this taxon is Chironomus austini (Beck & Beck)
p. 1.22    1st paragraph, line 4 should read “page 26”
p. 8.84    In the Diagnosis for Hyporhygma: each scale of the pecten epipharyngis has 4-6 smaller teeth (not 46!!!!)
p. 10.3    1st entry under Cricotopus should read “Cricotopus  absurdus (Johannsen)” Note: is now known from NC

10.6    Correct author for Goeldichironomus devineyae is (Beck), not "(Beck & Beck)"

On page 1.13, two publications are cited that were inadvertently deleted from the Bibliography.  They are:

Brown, R.W. 1956. Composition of Scientific Words. A manual of the methods and a lexicon of materials for the practice of logotechnics. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 882 pp.

Ride, W.D.L., C.W. Sabrosky, G. Bernardi and R.V. Melville (eds.). 1985. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Third Edition adopted by the XX General Assembly of the International Union of Biological Sciences.  International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature. University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles. 338 pp.


But wait - there's more! :

Kowalyk, H.E. 1985.  The larval cephalic setae in the Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) and their importance in generic determinations. Can. Ent. 117: 67-106.

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